The automobile is one of the most universal and important of modern technologies. It has been manufactured by the world’s largest automakers since 1917 and accounted for more than 73 million new vehicles sold in 2017.
The invention of the automobile revolutionized society, giving people more freedom and more time to do what they want. It also allowed people to live in one place and work in another. This allowed more people to get together in one social circle and helped increase opportunities for careers.
Initially, the car was powered by steam and electricity. However, the development of gas engines made cars more practical, safer and more economical.
Early automobiles were not very efficient and had numerous flaws. They lacked safety features such as seat belts, a windshield, rearview mirrors and turn signals.
It was only in 1885 that Karl Benz of Germany developed the first gasoline-powered automobile. He and his assistant Wilhelm Maybach built about thirty vehicles at the Daimler works in Cannstatt or at a hotel they had set up after falling out with their backers.
In the United States, the automobile industry began reaching saturation in the 1920s. To avoid the loss of market share to foreign makers, American car manufacturers introduced annual model-year design changes in the 1930s.
Today, the automobile is still one of the most important forms of transportation, with 1.4 billion cars and light trucks in operation worldwide. More than three trillion miles (about five trillion kilometers) are traveled on the road every year.
As automobiles have grown in popularity and become more sophisticated, automakers have focused on adding new safety features to their vehicles. Airbags, specialized child restraint systems and structural improvements such as side-impact protection bars have reduced the number of deaths and injuries from vehicle collisions.
These innovations have led to increased production and the creation of new markets for automotive products and services. Many companies specialize in manufacturing auto parts and accessories.
Some automobiles are specifically designed for specific purposes, such as crane vehicles at construction sites, road rollers for road maintenance and emergency vehicles, such as ambulances or patrol cars.
The main components of an automobile include a body, chassis, engine, drivetrain, and control systems. The body is made from a variety of materials, including aluminum, steel, and plastics.
Other main components include the axles, wheels, suspension, steering, and tires. The engine is usually an internal combustion engine fueled by gasoline, but some cars are electric or hybrids.
It is important to note that cars can cause serious damage to the environment and even cause death. For example, the emission of toxins into the atmosphere and the waste in landfills can be harmful to the health of humans and animals.
A vehicle’s size and speed can also affect its ability to maneuver in a safe manner. Fortunately, most modern cars have multiple airbags, anti-lock brakes and traction control.
In the future, cars will continue to evolve and improve their safety, performance, and environmental impact. New technology such as electric motors and battery systems will make it possible to build cheaper, smaller cars that are also more fuel-efficient. Despite these advances, however, the demand for traditional gas-powered cars will remain strong.